FCI-国际纯种犬标准第 183 号
Date of acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI: 7/13/1955
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 06.03.2007.
UTILIZATION: House and Companion Dog
Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer-Molossoid breeds - Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs.
Section 1 Pinscher and Schnauzer type.
Without working trial.
第1 类 宾莎犬和雪纳瑞犬
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
Around the turn of the century a dwarf Schnauzer from the Frankfurt/Main area went on his way, then still described as a rough haired Zwergpinscher (Miniature Pinscher). Due to the different shapes, sizes and types and the muddle of harsh, soft and silky coat textures, it was no easy task to evolve a small dog with the appearance and the characteristic qualities of his bigger brother, the Schnauzer.
Small, strong, stocky rather than slim, rough coated, elegant. A reduced image of the Schnauzer without the drawback of a dwarfed appearance.
Square build in which the height at the withers is nearly equal to the body length.
The length of the head (measured from the tip of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail).
His nature is similar to that of the Schnauzer and is determined by the temperament and the behaviour of a small dog. Intelligence, fearlessness, endurance and alertness make the Miniature Schnauzer an agreeable house dog as well as a watch and companion dog which can be kept even in a small apartment without problems.
CRANIAL REGION: 颅部区域
Skull: Strong, long without markedly protruding occiput. The head should be in keeping with the dog’s force. The forehead is flat, without wrinkles and parallel to the bridge of nose.
Stop: Appears well defined due to the brows
FACIAL REGION: 面部区域
Nose: Well developed nose leather, always black.
Muzzle: Ending in a blunt wedge. Bridge of nose straight.
Lips：Black, smooth and tight-fitting to the jaws. Corners of lips closed.
Jaws/Teeth: Strong upper and lower jaw. The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth according to the dentition formula), is strongly developed and firmly closing. The chewing muscles are strongly developed but the cheeks must not interfere with the rectangular shape of the head (with the beard).
Eyes: Medium sized, oval, facing forward, dark with lively expression. Eyelids close fitting.
Ears: Drop ears, set high, V-shaped with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, evenly carried , turned forward towards temples. Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull.
The strong, muscular neck is nobly arched, blending smoothly into the withers. Strongly set on, slim, nobly curved, corresponding to the dog’s force. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds.
Topline: Slightly sloping from withers towards rear.
Withers: Forming the highest point in topline.
Back: Strong, short and taut.
Loin:Short, strong and deep. The distance from the last rib to the hip is short to make the dog appear compact.
Croup: Slightly rounded and imperceptibly blending into tail set on.
Chest: Moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows.The fore chest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.
Underline and belly: Flanks not too tucked up, forming a well curved line with the underside of the ribcage.
TAIL: Natural; a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after.
General appearance :
Seen from the front, the front legs are strong, straight and not close together. Seen from the side, the forearms are straight.
Shoulders :The shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of the shoulder bone, protruding over the points of the thoracic vertebrae. As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50° to the horizontal.
Upper arm: Lying close to the body, strong and well-muscled, forming an angle of 95° to 105° to the shoulder blade.
Elbows: Close fitting, turning neither in nor out.
Forearm: Viewed from all sides, completely straight, strongly developed and well-muscled.
Carpal joint: Strong, firm, barely standing out against the structure of the forearm.
Pastern: Seen from the front, vertical. Seen from the side slightly sloping towards the ground, strong and slightly springy.
Forefeet: Short and round. Toes well-knit and arched (cat foot) with short dark nails and resistant pads.
General appearance : Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel but not close together when seen from the rear.
Upper thigh: Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Stifle: Turning neither in nor out.
Lower thigh: Long, strong and sinewy, running into a strong hock.
Hock: Very well angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.
Metatarsus: Short, vertical to the ground.
Hind feet: Toes short, arched and well-knit. Nails short and black.
Flexible, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The forelegs swinging as far forward as possible, the hind legs, ground covering and springy, provide the necessary drive. The front leg of one side and the hind leg of the other side move forward at the same time. The back, the ligaments and the joints are firm.
SKIN: Tight fitting over the whole body.
Hair: The coat should be wiry, harsh and dense. It consists of a dense undercoat and a not too short top coat, lying close to the body. The top coat is rough and sufficiently long to allow the checking of its texture; it is neither bristly nor wavy. The hair on the limbs tends to be less harsh. Coat short on forehead and ears. Typical characteristics are the not too soft beard on the muzzle and the bushy eyebrows which slightly shade the eyes.
Pure black with black undercoat.
Pepper and Salt.
Pure white with white undercoat.
When breeding Pepper and Salt, the aim is a medium shading with evenly distributed, well pigmented, pepper coloring and grey undercoat. The shades from dark iron grey to silver grey are all permitted. In all color variations there must be a dark mask, which should adapt harmoniously to the respective color. Distinct light markings on head, chest and limbs are undesirable.
For the Black/Silver color, the aim in breeding is a black top coat with black undercoat, white markings over the eyes, on the cheeks, at the beard, at the throat, in two divided triangles at the front of the chest, on the front pasterns, on the feet, on the inside of the hind legs and around the anus. The forehead, the neck and the outer sides of the ears should be black like the top coat.
Height at withers
Dogs and bitches between 30 and 35 cm.
肩高：公犬和母犬： 30~35 厘米
Dogs and bitches approximately 4 to 8 kg.
体重：公犬和母犬大约： 4~8 千克
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Heavy or round skull.
Wrinkles on forehead.
Short, pointed or narrow muzzle.
Strongly protruding cheeks or cheekbones.
Light, too large or round eyes.
Low set, too long or unevenly carried ears.
Dewlap, narrow crest or neck.
Too long, tucked up or soft back.
Croup falling away.
Tail set inclined towards head.
Too short, too long, soft, wavy, shaggy, silky coat.
A black trace on the back or a black saddle.
In Black/Silver not clearly separated triangles on the chest.
Over- or undersize up to 1 cm.
SERIOUS FAULTS: 严重缺陷
Clumsy or light build. Too low or too high on leg.
Inverse sexual type (e.g. doggy bitch).
Elbows turning out.
Straight or open hocked hind legs.
Lower thigh too long.
Hocks turning inwards.
Rear pastern too short.
White or spotted coat in black or pepper and salt dogs.
Patchy coat in the colors black/silver and white.
Over- or undersize by more than 1 cm but less than 2 cm.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: 失格缺陷
Aggressive or overly shy.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Malformation of any kind.
Lack of breed type.
Faulty mouth, such as over- or undershot or wry mouth.
Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in construction, coat and colour.
Over- or undersize by more than 2 cm.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fullydescended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.